Symptoms and treatment of hepatitis A (Botkin's disease). Prevention and vaccination against the virus

  1. General information Hepatitis A (the second name is Botkin's disease ) is an intestinal infection...
  2. How does the infection occur?
  3. Hepatitis A classification
  4. Hepatitis A Symptoms
  5. Diagnosis of Hepatitis A
  6. Hepatitis A treatment
  7. The doctors
  8. Hepatitis A and pregnancy
  9. Diet, nutrition for Botkin's disease

General information

Hepatitis A (the second name is Botkin's disease ) is an intestinal infection that often occurs in children. During its development, general intoxication of the organism occurs, but the human liver is mainly affected. As a rule, hepatitis A develops not in one child, but in a whole group of children who are in close contact with each other. Most often the disease affects children between the ages of three and seven years. However, adults also suffer from hepatitis A. In a percentage of more than 60% of cases of the disease occur in children. The disease is very rare in infants who are protected antibodies mothers.

Hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis A is an acute infectious disease that develops under the influence of the virus.

Hepatitis A virus is resistant to a number of substances - acids , ether , chlorine . However, he is sensitive to formalin , and at boiling perishes in 5 minutes.

The virus is excreted from the human body along with feces, and the person has been contagious since the end of incubation period and during the preicter period. In the feces of a person with an already developed jaundice virus is not detected. The virus enters the body through the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.

In viral hepatitis A, the duration of the incubation period can vary considerably and range from 7 to 50 days. But basically it ranges from 15 to 30 days.

Reproduction of viral particles occurs in the cytoplasm of liver cells. After they leave the liver cells, they immediately enter the bile ducts and then, together with the bile, they end up in the intestine.

Hepatocytes (liver cells) are damaged due to inflammation that develops in the liver. In turn, the inflammatory process is a consequence of the attack of the body’s immune system on the liver cells affected by the virus. As a result, infected hepatocytes die, Botkin's disease manifests, and liver function is impaired.

How does the infection occur?

The source of infection is a person infected with a virus The source of infection is a person infected with a virus. With its faeces, billions of viruses are released into the environment. If a person consumes water or products that have been infected with the hepatitis A virus, then the virus enters the human intestine, and then, along with the bloodstream, it moves to the liver and invades the hepatocytes.

Thus, the transmission route of the hepatitis A virus is fecal-oral . Very often, infection with the disease occurs in countries with a hot climate on different continents.

Hepatitis is also called the "dirty hands disease". In civilized countries, due to the normal operation of sanitary and public utilities, as well as due to compliance with the rules of hygiene by the population, people rarely get hepatitis. Therefore, antibodies to this disease are produced in a very small number of people. Contacting with the carrier of the virus, persons who do not have antibodies, are at risk of infection. Therefore, during trips to the countries of Asia and Africa, infection among our fellow citizens is relatively common.

A healthy person may have contact with the patient without risking infection. At the same time it is more important to strictly follow all the rules of hygiene. But it is best to isolate children from patients with hepatitis A.

To determine the degree of risk of infection by the disease in order to decide whether vaccination is advisable, a special blood test can be performed, which determines whether antibodies to the hepatitis A virus are found in the human body. If they are detected, this means that the person is present. immunity virus, and vaccination is not needed. Hepatitis A again people almost do not get sick. In the absence of antibodies, there is a risk of infection, which means that a vaccination is needed.

Before a possible infection or after it within two weeks, a person can enter immunoglobulin , which during this period will protect against infection or from the development of disease in the body.

Hepatitis A classification

There is a division of hepatitis A into several species according to different criteria. Depending on the manifestations of the disease, a typical variant is secreted (jaundice is present in the patient) and an atypical variant (no jaundice is observed). If the latter is the case, then sometimes the disease passes unnoticed, since the child in this case suffers only from a brief stool disorder.

Assessing the course of Botkin's disease in a child, doctors emit a mild form (most cases), a moderate form (approximately 30% of cases), a severe form (rarely, approximately 1-3% of cases).

Hepatitis A Symptoms

Botkin's disease during the incubation period gradually begins to show some characteristic signs Botkin's disease during the incubation period gradually begins to show some characteristic signs. A person may be disturbed fever as well as dyspeptic manifestations (vomiting, nausea, heaviness in the stomach and right hypochondrium). A child may slightly increase body temperature in the first few days. In addition, the symptoms of Botkin's disease are manifested by weakness and darkening of the urine. Later, the patient develops jaundice - the sclera acquires a characteristic yellow color, the skin, and the feces at the same time become discolored. Yellowness manifests on the body very quickly, almost overnight. This state lasts for three to six weeks. Moreover, after the manifestation of jaundice, the patient begins to feel a little better. On average, the disease lasts about 40 days. At this time, it is carried out adequate treatment. But the duration of the illness period can be affected by various factors, for example, age, the right approach to therapy, the presence of other diseases of a chronic nature.

In about 15% of people affected by the hepatitis virus, the disease becomes chronic and can last up to 9 months. In most cases, hepatitis A manifests typical symptoms, and the patient fully recovers if the doctor’s recommendations are followed, as well as appropriate diet .

Hepatitis A is most severely affected by children who have not yet turned one year old, adult patients, and elderly people. In preschool children, viral hepatitis A is more mild, while in adult patients, the symptoms of hepatitis A are pronounced, with severe intoxication. The disease can last up to three months, despite the treatment undertaken.

It is necessary to take into account the fact that all hepatitis, having any origin, show similar symptoms. Therefore, it is very important to consult a doctor promptly and undergo a thorough examination.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis A

In order to diagnose a patient with hepatitis A, the doctor must carefully examine the patient's epidemiological history. In this case, we are talking about which countries the person visited, what he ate with, whether he had contacts with patients, etc. In addition, tests are necessarily carried out - general and biochemical blood tests, analysis of viral hepatitis markers, urinalysis, coagulogram .

The main criterion for the diagnosis of the acute form of Botkin's disease is the isolation of antibodies to hepatitis A from human blood. They can be detected in the blood only during the acute period of the disease.

Hepatitis A treatment

If a person has been diagnosed with hepatitis A, then specific therapy is not practiced, since the patient recovers without treatment. In modern medicine, the efforts of specialists concentrate on reducing the content of harmful substances in the human body and removing them. Such substances begin to appear in the human body at a time when the liver is damaged, and its basic functions are impaired. Consequently, detoxification solutions as well as glucose are administered to patients. They are shown taking vitamins and hepatoprotectors (these drugs protect the liver cells). With Botkin's disease there is no need for antiviral therapy. If doctors deal with a severe case of the disease, then the principle of treatment does not change, but the volume of prescribed drugs increases.

In the process of treatment it is important to adhere to a specific dietary intake. Food should be high in calories and balanced. It is necessary to introduce into the daily diet proteins in the form of lean meat and fish, eggs, low-fat cheese. Carbohydrates should be consumed in the form of porridge, potatoes, bread, sugar. Fats need to choose a vegetable origin, as well as periodically use butter. In addition, it is important for the child to eat a lot of vegetables, fruits, and drink juices. At the same time, refractory fats, fatty meats, fish, sausages, spicy foods, legumes, chocolate, smoked meats, etc. are not allowed in the diet.

Equally important is a complete rest and a state of emotional and physical peace. Children who carry the disease easily, you need to limit physical activity. But if the child constantly feels bad, then he should adhere to bed rest.

After recovery, children are required to be under medical supervision. If, after two examinations, the child does not show any irregularities in the state of health, then he is removed from the register.

With hepatitis A, the prognosis is favorable; in humans, the liver is fully restored. In rare cases, the liver remains enlarged, but it does not affect its function.

The doctors


Hepatitis A Prevention

The main preventive measure is vaccine against Botkin's disease The main preventive measure is vaccine against Botkin's disease. Modern vaccines highly effective and have high immunogenicity. Vaccine must be administered twice, with the interval is from six months to one year. After the introduction of the vaccine, the person is protected from virus infection for up to 10 years.

Vaccinations are given to children who have reached the age of three, as well as adults who have never had hepatitis A. It is also important to vaccinate those people who have an increased risk of infection.

Several categories of persons who need to vaccinate against hepatitis A are determined. First of all, these are members of the family of a patient with hepatitis A and people who are in close contact with him. Individuals who have had sexual contact with patients should receive vaccinations. Vaccination is also necessary for those who live in regions where many cases of the disease are recorded; people intending to visit countries where hepatitis A is common; homosexuals; those who use drugs.

Vaccinations for hepatitis should also be received by employees of the infectious wards of hospitals, all personnel of children's institutions, employees of the water supply and catering sectors, people suffering from chronic liver diseases.

If someone in the family is ill with Botkin's disease, it is recommended that all family members be examined for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis A. In addition, as a disease prevention, everyone should follow the simplest rules of hygiene: wash hands as often as possible, always use soap. It is very important from an early age to teach children to comply with the rules of prevention.

Hepatitis A and pregnancy

If a woman is planning pregnancy , it needs a vaccine against hepatitis A, since the disease can provoke complications of pregnancy and even premature birth. If vaccination was not carried out, then the pregnant woman should clearly know how Botkin's disease is transmitted, since prevention in this case is a very important point.

Diet, nutrition for Botkin's disease

Hepatitis A Diet

  • Efficacy: therapeutic effect after 10 days
  • Terms: from 3 months and more
  • The cost of products: 1200-1400 rubles. in Week

List of sources

  • Infectious diseases. National leadership. Ed. N.D. Yushchuk, Yu.Ya. Vengerov. M .: GEOTAR-Media. 2009;
  • Uchaikin V.F., Nisevich N.I., Cherednichenko T.V. Viral hepatitis A to TTU. - M., 2003;
  • Esaulenko EV, Gorchakova OV, Chernov M.Yu. The clinical course of hepatitis A during periods of varying intensity of the epidemic process. Medline Express. 2004;
  • Mayer KP Hepatitis and the effects of hepatitis. A practical guide. Per. with him. / Ed. A.A. Sheptulina. - M .: Geotar Medicine, 1999;
  • Treatment of viral hepatitis. A.A. Klyuchareva, N.V. Goloborodko, L.S. Zhmurovskaya et al. / Ed. A.A. Klyuchareva - Minsk: Doctor Disign Ltd., 2003.
How does the infection occur?
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