Статьи

Allergy to cow, goat and breast milk in a baby: symptoms

  1. Causes and mechanism of occurrence
  2. What is the reaction?
  3. Can there be on dairy products?
  4. Symptoms and signs
  5. How to recognize?
  6. Dairy ingredients in products
  7. Diagnostics
  8. Treatment methods and diet
  9. Forecast

Milk and dairy products are for a long time the main food for a young child . Saturated with a huge amount of useful substances, they help it grow and develop in accordance with age.

But there are cases when a child is allergic to any milk: goat, cow or even maternal. She has 10% of children , according to statistics.

Causes and mechanism of occurrence

Causes and mechanism of occurrence

There is a large amount of various protein-antigens in milk, and some of them, getting into the digestive tract, cannot be fully split by the enzymes of an immature children's organism , therefore an allergic reaction occurs.

The strongest protein antigens that most commonly cause an allergic reaction are serum albumin, casein, alpha lactoglobulin and beta lactoglobulin.

Do not confuse allergy to protein-antigen with lactose deficiency , which occurs due to a lack of enzymes in the digestive system that break down lactose - natural is present in milk and dairy products only. sugar .

In addition to the true allergy, there is also a false one, when the child’s body works as it should, enzymes are able to cope, but he was given too much milk, and therefore the digestive system failed to digest the excess protein.

Sometimes an allergy occurs not on protein-antigens, but on drugs that, for various reasons, are given to animals. But if the child has allergies and recycled milk mixtures then it clearly indicates that the main allergen is protein .

Also the appearance of allergies can affect :

  • genetic predisposition;
  • low quality milk;
  • poor environmental conditions;
  • artificial feeding;
  • pathological course of pregnancy.

How does diaper allergy manifest in a child? Learn about it from our articles .

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What is the reaction?

What is the reaction

The most common allergic reaction occurs in cow's milk, the main allergen in which - casein - has large molecules that are difficult to process by enzymes.

Much less likely to cause allergies sheep and goat milk .

But allergies to mother's milk can not be, and the only reason for the occurrence of the reaction is the mother of the baby eats allergenic foods: chicken eggs, smoked meats, seafood, mayonnaise, milk, tomatoes, honey, chocolate, coffee, cocoa and so on.

In each type of animal milk, the set of amino acids differs, so a child who is allergic to, for example, cow's milk, in some cases, can drink sheep or goat.

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Can there be on dairy products?

Allergy to protein-antigens can occur when using dairy products, such as dairy mixes, kefir, cottage cheese, yogurt, and more.

However, dairy products have a lower allergenicity than whole milk.

Also, an allergic reaction can appear not so much from milk, as from food additives, which are in the composition of so many dairy products, so parents should carefully read the composition before buying something for their child.

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Symptoms and signs

Symptoms and signs

How does milk allergy manifest in children? Milk allergies can manifest themselves in completely different ways , but there are always general symptoms:

  1. Vomiting.
  2. Diarrhea with mucus and food residues, sometimes even interspersed with blood.
  3. Strong intestinal colic.
  4. Flatulence.
  5. Strong regurgitation.
  6. Dehydration.
  7. Lag in physical development.
  8. Skin rash: rash, eczema, edema, atopic dermatitis.
  9. A runny nose, cough, and tearing may occur.
  10. In rare cases, the development of angioedema is possible.

If a child has a severe allergic reaction, there are blood patches in the feces, and the diarrhea itself does not stop for a long time, then it is necessary to immediately go to the hospital, since severe dehydration can even be fatal.

And if symptoms of angioedema are observed (mucous membranes in the area of ​​the face and neck swell, breathing is much difficult, loss of consciousness may be observed), you should immediately call an ambulance.

The development of an allergy to milk may not be instantaneous, but long.

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How to recognize?

How to recognize

How to understand that the reaction is on milk?

You should contact the doctor, and he will offer to conduct special tests, the results of which will make it clear what exactly is observed in a child: lactose deficiency or allergy.

To do this, he should follow a lactose-free diet for several days:

  • transfer the child to a special mixture that does not contain lactose;
  • if the child is breastfed, the mother should refuse to accept milk and dairy products;
  • exclusion from the diet of the child of all dairy products.

If after that the child has signs of an allergic reaction, then this means that he is intolerant of protein-antigens, and not lactose.

To clarify the diagnosis, additional laboratory tests are carried out: skin prick tests, skin allergy test, radio allergy-sorbent test and, if necessary, other studies to find out if the child has an allergic reaction to something else or if he is not allergic to milk. confirmed.

Independently, without the intervention of medicine, it is difficult to understand what the child is allergic to, since many allergic reactions are very similar.

Also, the gastrointestinal manifestations of allergy can be confused with banal poisoning on something, and respiratory manifestations - with diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, to appeal to the doctor and do not self-medicate.

What are the consequences of severe asphyxia in newborns at birth? Answer You will find on our website.

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Dairy ingredients in products

Dairy ingredients in products

Casein, one of the known allergens, is found in all dairy products and milk in various quantities.

In pure goat and cow's milk its approximately 80% of the total amount of proteins .

Therefore, in some cases, an allergy in a child can occur in one form or another when eating a product with casein (especially in large quantities), namely: any milk, hard and semi-hard cheese, cottage cheese, kefir, sour milk, sour cream , cream, milk custards, yoghurts, milk chocolate, ice cream, milkshakes, cheese curds and more.

With a very pronounced susceptibility, even traces of milk in products can cause an allergic reaction.

In case of intolerance to serum albumin, an allergic reaction to beef and calf meat can be observed, but it is very rare, since albumin is destroyed during heat treatment, but the likelihood of its presence remains.

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Diagnostics

To determine allergies, the doctor needs a lot of time, it takes a fairly extensive number of diagnostic procedures. All symptoms, history and laboratory results will be taken into account.

Before visiting a pediatrician, parents should prepare : find out what kind of allergies the family has, whether any of them are allergic to milk, remember how the child’s allergies develop, what symptoms he has and which of them are most pronounced.

All this will help the doctor in the diagnosis. If you have any questions after the first consultation, then you should definitely ask them to the doctor.

Allergological tests often include skin tests, blood tests, diets.

When diagnosing, skin tests are often used, since they can be carried out most easily and quickly.

However, only the results of these tests are not diagnosed, because there is a possibility of an error. Only a combination of studies will give an accurate result.

Skin prick tests are a pretty good way to diagnose milk protein allergy. The child's forearm is treated with alcohol and a small amount of milk is dripped onto the skin, and then a puncture is made with a lancet.

If there is a reaction, then it clearly indicates that milk for the child is an allergen. But in some cases, the reaction does not appear, the symptoms may occur immediately .

After the prik-test, the doctor gives directions to other studies: an allergic skin test and a blood test for specific immunoglobulin E. The skin test helps to identify reactions that do not appear immediately, but after a while. This study is considered to be the most effective in detecting allergies.

A blood test for specific immunoglobulin E allows you to identify the number of specific antibodies. The level of immunoglobulin E is high in children with allergies or asthma.

However, even if the test did not show a positive result, the child may be allergic, just the reaction was delayed. An elimination diet can also be performed.

Based on the results of all tests, a diagnosis is made and specific allergy treatment begins.

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Treatment methods and diet

Treatment methods and diet

The main way to treat an allergic reaction to milk is to change the child’s diet. What to feed?

If possible, the baby should be transferred completely to breast milk, otherwise special hypoallergenic mixtures, made on the basis of milk with already split proteins, are used.

If the child is not allergic to goat's milk, then it should be included in the diet. You can also enter dairy products as a complementary food after six months, if the child is not allergic to them.

The use of soy-based dairy products is allowed, but it must be borne in mind that soy may also cause allergies. There are also other alternatives: oatmeal and rice milk.

An allergy to breast milk is more a myth than a fact . If the baby is fully breastfed and is allergic, the main recommendation in this case is to correct the diet of the nursing mother, eliminating from it products that have milk: cream, chocolate, bakery products, milk powder, ice cream and so on.

But if the mother for some reason can not follow a diet, then the child should be transferred to artificial mixtures .

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Forecast

The vast majority of children who are allergic to milk, it passes on its own through time . About 50% of children recover after a year, and 80% -90% - by the age of five. Extremely rare allergy remains for life.

If you go to the hospital in time, do the necessary research and follow all the pediatrician's recommendations, the probability of a complete cure for allergies increases , the child’s digestive system becomes stronger, and food allergic reactions are unlikely to disturb him at an older age.

What can replace milk in the diet of a child with allergies? You can learn about this from the video:

Can there be on dairy products?
How does diaper allergy manifest in a child?
How to understand that the reaction is on milk?
What are the consequences of severe asphyxia in newborns at birth?
What to feed?
What can replace milk in the diet of a child with allergies?

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